Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
- 25 Novembre 2011
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book provides insight into the Life Cycle Management (LCM) concept and the progress in its implementation. LCM is a management concept applied in industrial and service sectors to improve products and services, while enhancing the overall sustainability performance of business and its value chains. In this regard, LCM is an opportunity to differentiate through sustainability performance on the market place, working with all departments of a company such as research and development, procurement and marketing, and to enhance the collaboration with stakeholders along a company's value chain. LCM is used beyond short-term business success and aims at long-term achievements by minimizing environmental and socio-economic burden, while maximizing economic and social value.
Offering the first comprehensive treatment of the theory of random measures, this book has a very broad scope, ranging from basic properties of Poisson and related processes to the modern theories of convergence, stationarity, Palm measures, conditioning, and compensation. The three large final chapters focus on applications within the areas of stochastic geometry, excursion theory, and branching processes. Although this theory plays a fundamental role in most areas of modern probability, much of it, including the most basic material, has previously been available only in scores of journal articles. The book is primarily directed towards researchers and advanced graduate students in stochastic processes and related areas.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
- 3 Février 2022
The first edition of The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology introduced a completely new paradigm for detecting bladder cancer by urine cytology. This system concentrated on defining morphological characteristics of the most clinically significant form of bladder cancer, High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma. This new approach has been widely accepted throughout the world, and has become part of the daily practice of cytology. Considering that the first edition of The Paris System (TPS) introduced a new model of urinary cytodiagnosis, verification and expansion of initial material and data were anticipated. Based on evolving knowledge and readership requests, the group of highly experienced authors have created a new edition of TPS. This second edition includes areas and issues not originally covered. A new chapter on urine cytology of the upper tract, a rarely addressed topic, has been introduced. Furthermore, the issue of cellular degeneration is discussed in the criteria of all diagnostic categories. Examples of standardized reports are included in each chapter. Most importantly, a separate chapter presents data defining the risk of malignancy (ROM) for each diagnostic category to inform clinical management. New high quality images augment those of the first edition to better illustrate diagnostic clues and potential pitfalls. In addition to chapters on diagnostic criteria, current concepts of pathogenesis of bladder cancer, specimen adequacy and preparation, and ancillary tests are covered in separate chapters. A bonus to the volume is a comprehensive history of urine as the earliest diagnostic sample of human disease, richly illustrated with artworks from major museums. Written by internationally recognized authorities, this comprehensive and evidence-based guide to urine cytology is supported by the newest data confirming the original concept and significance of diagnostic criteria defining High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma. TPS is an essential tool for anyone who is practicing urinary cytology, including cytotechnologists, pathologists-in-training and practicing pathologists. This book should find a place in every cytology laboratory throughout the world. The Concept has been endorsed by the American Society of Cytopathology, and the International Academy of Cytology.
Das blaue Buch" der Psychosen-Ratgeber von Josef Bäuml komplett neu bearbeitet
Das Auftreten einer psychotischen Erkrankung führt immer wieder zu Sprachlosigkeit und Verunsicherung. Warum erkrankt jemand überhaupt an Schizophrenie? Welche Konsequenzen hat dies für das Leben von Patienten und Angehrigen? Welche Therapiemglichkeiten gibt es?
Hier finden Sie die Antworten auf alle Ihre drängenden Fragen. Der Ratgeber legt besonderen Wert auf die Erläuterung der medikamentsen Therapie, ihrer Notwendigkeit und ihre Verknüpfung mit anderen Therapien.
Einfach und verständlich geschrieben, ist das Buch ein unentbehrlicher Ratgeber für alle, die sich mit dieser Gruppe von Erkrankungen auseinander setzen müssen. Zudem dient er auch als Leitfaden für Gespräche mit professionellen Helfern.
Neu in dieser Auflage:
Alle wichtigen aktuellen Therapieentwicklungen der letzten Jahre
Übersicht über die neuesten Erkenntnisse bezüglich der Ursachen von Psychosen
Verständliche Darstellung sämtlicher Medikamentengruppen
Der Klassiker unter den Psychiatrie-Ratgebern!
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
- 5 Mars 2016
Good presentation skills are key to a successful career in academia. This guide provides examples taken from real presentations given both by native and non-native academics covering a wide variety of disciplines.
The easy-to-follow guidelines and tips will teach you how to: plan, prepare and practice a well-organized, interesting presentation
avoid errors in English by using short easy-to-say sentences
improve your English pronunciation and intonation
gain confidence, and overcome nerves and embarrassment
highlight the essential points you want your audience to remember
attract and retain audience attention
deal with questions from the audience
This new edition contains several additional features, including stimulating factoids and discussion points both for self-study and in-class use. New chapters also cover:learning from talks on TED
networking with potential collaborators, professors, fellow researchers
interacting successfully with non-native audiences
EAP teachers will find this book to be a great source of tips for training students, and for preparing both instructive and entertaining lessons.
Other books in the series cover: writing research papers; English grammar, usage, and style; academic correspondence; interacting on campus; plus exercises books and a teacher's guide.
Please visit http://www.springer.com/series/13913 for a full list of titles in the series.
Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 30 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and academics from 35 countries to write research papers, prepare presentations, and communicate with editors, referees and fellow researchers.
- 11 Novembre 2018
This book includes the texts of the survey lectures given by plenary speakers at the 11th International ISAAC Congress held in Växj, Sweden, on 14-18 August, 2017. It is the purpose of ISAAC to promote analysis, its applications, and its interaction with computation. Analysis is understood here in the broad sense of the word, including differential equations, integral equations, functional analysis, and function theory. With this objective, ISAAC organizes international Congresses for the presentation and discussion of research on analysis.
The plenary lectures in the present volume, authored by eminent specialists, are devoted to some exciting recent developments, topics including: local solvability for subprincipal type operators; fractional-order Laplacians; degenerate complex vector fields in the plane; lower bounds for pseudo-differential operators; a survey on Morrey spaces; localization operators in Signal Theory and Quantum Mechanics. Thanks to the accessible style used, readers only need a basic command of Calculus.
This book will appeal to scientists, teachers, and graduate students in Mathematics, in particular Mathematical Analysis, Probability and Statistics, Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Physics.
- 7 Mai 2018
Building on the success of this book's first edition, Dr. Eric Hansen and Dr. Mack Roach have updated, revised, and expanded the Handbook of Evidence-based Radiation Oncology, a portable reference that utilizes evidence-based medicine as the basis for practical treatment recommendations and guidelines. Organized by body site, concise clinical chapters provide easy access to critical information. Important "pearls" of epidemiology, anatomy, pathology, and clinical presentation are highlighted. Key facets of the work-up are listed, followed by staging and/or risk classification systems. Treatment recommendations are discussed based on stage, histology, and/or risk classification. Brief summaries of key trials and studies provide rationale for the recommendations. Practical guidelines for radiation techniques are described. Finally, complications and follow-up guidelines are outlined. Updates from the first edition include brand new color figures and color contouring mini-atlases for head and neck, gastrointestinal, prostate, and gynecological tumors; redesigned tables for increased readability; new chapters on management of the neck and unknown primary, clinical radiobiology, and pediatric malignancies and benign conditions; and new appendices including the American College of Radiology guidelines for administration of IV contrast.
- 18 Mars 2021
This book provides an overview of the latest experimental work on sex-based differences in lung function and inflammation. Readers will learn how these differences relate to individual predispositions for the development of lung disease in men and women, and in different stages of their reproductive lives. Further, the book focuses on diseases that predominantly affect women or men, with an emphasis on the physiological mechanisms underlying their pathobiology.
In turn, these findings are complemented by chapters on recent studies, which investigate how circulating sex hormone levels impact the lung's innate immune response to environmental agents and air pollution. The pathogeneses of asthma and viral respiratory infection are also major focus areas. As an outlook, the book also discusses current and future research directions aimed at developing sex-specific therapies for lung disease.
To examine these anatomical and physiological differences in the male and female respiratory systems, the authors employ a broad range of methods from molecular and clinical biology. Accordingly, the book will be a fascinating read for physiologists and clinicians alike.
- 13 Janvier 2023
Leading researchers are specially invited to provide a complete understanding of a key topic within the multidisciplinary fields of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology. In a form immediately useful to scientists, this periodical aims to filter, highlight and review the latest developments in these rapidly advancing fields.?
- 12 Décembre 2020
This book discusses the unique ion channels and transporters found within the epithelial tissues of various organs, including the kidney, intestine, pancreas and respiratory tract. Authors focus on demonstrating the crucial roles that each of these channels and transporters play in transepithelial ion and fluid transport across epithelia, as well as in maintaining homeostasis. It allows readers to gain an understanding of the fundamentals of ion transport, in terms of function, modelling, regulation, trafficking, structure and pharmacology. This is the second of three volumes highlighting the importance of epithelial ion channels and transporters in basic physiology and pathophysiology of human diseases.
This volume focuses on a wide array of epithelial tissues and the use of organoids to study epithelial function. Furthermore, clinical researchers and basic scientists from various fields provide a medical perspective on the physiology of a number of tissues and organs of the body including the pancreas, intestine, sweat glands, mammary gland, inner ear epithelia, retinal pigment epithelia of the eye, choroid plexus, and the ectodermal epithelia in dental enamel formation. This volume aims to `round out' the reader's journey from basic science to the laboratory bench and clinical management of molecular diseases, making Volume 2 a must-read for students and scientists in the field of physiology, as well as for clinicians.
Great Salt Lake is an enormous terminal lake in the western United States. It is a highly productive ecosystem, which has global significance for millions of migrating birds who rely on this critical feeding station on their journey through the American west. For the human population in the adjacent metropolitan area, this body of water provides a significant economic resource as industries, such as brine shrimp harvesting and mineral extraction, generate jobs and income for the state of Utah. In addition, the lake provides the local population with ecosystem services, especially the creation of mountain snowpack that generates water supply, and the prevention of dust that may impair air quality. As a result of climate change and water diversions for consumptive uses, terminal lakes are shrinking worldwide, and this edited volume is written in this urgent context.
This is the first book ever centered on Great Salt Lake biology. Current and novel data presented here paint a comprehensive picture, building on our past understanding and adding complexity. Together, the authors explore this saline lake from the microbial diversity to the invertebrates and the birds who eat them, along a dynamic salinity gradient with unique geochemistry. Some unusual perspectives are included, including the impact of tar seeps on the lake biology and why Great Salt Lake may help us search for life on Mars. Also, we consider the role of human perceptions and our effect on the biology of the lake. The editors made an effort to involve a diversity of experts on the Great Salt Lake system, but also to include unheard voices such as scientists at state agencies or non-profit advocacy organizations. This book is a timely discussion of a terminal lake that is significant, unique, and threatened.
- 18 Août 2020
This book is the first to integrate biological control into a conceptual framework - ecostacking - uniting all aspects of biological control and ecosystem services. In 2018 the "First International Congress of Biological Control" was organised and held in Beijing, China. The chapters highlight some of the achievements presented at the congress, worldwide. Of particular significance are the numerous contributions by Chinese researchers illustrating the remarkable progress made on developing and adopting multiple biological control strategies over vast agricultural areas, largely replacing chemical pesticides for sustainable agricultural and horticultural production. In many parts of the world including Europe, fragmented research based on short-term funding has been unable to answer to the needs to develop sustainable long-term solutions to crop protection, while colleagues in China have been successful in implementing programs that exemplify the power of the ecostacking approach.
Key contributions by European and US specialists combined with the expertise and experiences by the Chinese contributors comprise the building blocks for the integration of biological control approaches into the overall frame of ecostacking. This book will lead the way to a broader, integrated adoption of biological control techniques in sustainable pest, disease and weed management supporting also the functioning of other key ecosystem services.
Chapter 2 of this book isavailable openaccess under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com
- 20 Octobre 2020
Insects, pests and weeds are responsible for substantial loss of crops and reduced food supplies, poorer quality of agricultural products, economic hardship for growers and processor. Generally, chemical control methods are neither always economical nor are they effective and may have associated unwanted health, safety and environmental risks. Biological control involves use of beneficial biological agents to control pests and offers an environmental friendly approach to the effective management of plant diseases and weeds. The chapters are written by well recognized group leaders in the field. This book provides a comprehensive account of interaction of host and pests, and development of biological control agents for practical applications in crops management utilizing inherent defence mechanism, induced stimulation and biological control agents. The contents are divided into the following sections: General biology of plant defence, Use of natural compounds for biological control, Use of biological agents, Mechanism of action and Commercial aspects. The book will be useful for academicians, researcher and industries involved in study and manufacturing these products.
This book concerns the mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the human stomach. It follows the four modern P's (prevention, prediction, personalization, and precision in medicine) approach in addressing the highly heterogeneous nature of processes underlying gastric motility disorders manifested as gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, myenteric enteropathy etc. The book comprehensively guides readers through the fundamental theoretical concepts to complex physiological models of the organ. This requires a deep and thorough understanding of driving pathophysiological mechanisms as well as the collaborative effort of specialists working in fundamental and biological science. Such a multidisciplinary partnership is vital because it upholds gnostic capabilities and provides the exchange of thoughts and ideas thus offering broad perspectives into the evolution and management of diseases. The book is a valuable resource for applied mathematicians, computational biologists, bioengineers, physicians, physiologists and researchers working in various fields of biomedicine.
- 31 Mai 2017
Patient empowerment as a key component in the future of healthcare systems is the focus of this concise in-depth analysis. It begins by defining patient empowerment as a collaborative partnership linking patients, providers, and systems, and examines the roles of health literacy, provider-patient and system-patient communication, and patient-centered care in the empowerment process. Models of positive and negative empowerment identify optimum conditions when patient and provider participate in service design and delivery as well as pitfalls and risks to patient and system when goals and input are mismatched. The book also translates concepts into practice with guidelines for empowerment strategies at the provider and organization levels to improve patient outcomes and system sustainability. Included in the coverage: · Empowering healthcare organizations to empower patients · A re-design of the patient-provider partnership · Patient empowerment: a requisite for sustainability · The risks of value co-destruction in service systems · The need for enlightening and managing the dark side of patient empowerment · Disentangling the relationship between individual health literacy and patient empowerment Straightforwardly written as a call for proactive change, The Bright Side and the Dark Side of Patient Empowerment is an illuminating text for scholars interested in patient empowerment and patient engagement, policymakers and managers operating in the healthcare field, and healthcare and social care providers.
- 14 Décembre 2015
The main aim of this book is to bridge the gap between aerobic and anaerobic waste treatments by concentrating on studies of earthworms. In particular, vermicomposting is being discussed as well as its properties and applications. Other subjects touch on the treatment of palm oil mill effluents, the various importance of earthworms, its scope and future aspects of earthworm research, and the impact of waste management practices on human health.
The monograph focuses on the European freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera, which is an endangered bivalve species. Most of its populations in the Russian section of the Baltic Sea basin had never been studied, although they were known in the past to the pearl fishers. "Rediscovery" included search for the previously unknown populations, revealing the facts of population extinctions, analysis of negative impacts, elaboration of conservation measures, and revealing of regularities in distribution. Patterns of land use and river management were analyzed.
The procedure of "rediscovery" was applied for other animal species of Northwest Russia, which are threatened on a global scale - thick-shelled mussel, Unio crassus; curlew Numenius arquata; black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa; Northern Lapwing, Vanellus vanellus; European mink, Mustela lutreola; pond bat, Myotis dasycneme; Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio; and broad-clawed crayfish, Astacus astacus. The methods and principles of conservation studies were discussed. The obtained data were analyzed with respect to current global change of biosphere.
The book will appeal to specialists dealing with conservation studies and activities such as red lists, river protection, and conservation of endangered species. Moreover, a part of the book represents an interest for biogerontology as it presents discredit of the popular concept on "negligible senescence." The data on distribution of some animals in Russia will be interesting in terms of zoology and biogeography, as they are not yet sufficiently represented in the international editions.
The book can be used as supplemental reading for courses in biological invasions, ecology and conservation, and biodiversity. The work also contains chapters on global processes (deforestation, desertification, river degradation) and can therefore also be used for general courses in environmental sciences.
- 27 Juillet 2016
In this book, contributors from diverse backgrounds take a first step toward an integrated view of reefs and the significance of their recent decline. More than any other earth system, coral reefs sit at a disciplinary crossroads. Most recently, they have reached another crossroads - fundamental changes in their bio-physical structure greater than those of previous centuries or even millennia. Effective strategies to mitigate recent trends will require an approach that embraces the myriad perspectives from across the scientific landscape, but will also need a mechanism to transform scientific understanding into social will and political implementation.
This book examines an important paradigm shift in biology: Plants and animals, traditionally viewed as individuals, are now considered to be complex systems and host to a plethora of microorganisms. After first presenting historical aspects of microbiota research, bacterial compositions of individual microbiomes and the critical analysis of current methods, the book discusses how microbial communities inside the human body are profoundly affected by numerous factors, such as macro- and micro-nutrients, physical exercise, antibiotics, gender and age. As described by current research, the author highlights how microbiomes contribute to the fitness of the host by providing nutrients, inhibiting pathogens, aiding in the storage of fat during pregnancy, and contributing to development and behavior. The author not only focusses on prokaryotic components in microbiomes, but also addresses single-cell eukaryotes and viruses. This follow-up to the successful book The Hologenome Concept: Human, Animal and Plant Microbiota, published in 2013, provides a contemporary overview of microbiomes. It appeals to anyone working in the life sciences and biomedicine.
This book is devoted to the alkaline-saline lakes of East Africa, which include the world-famous "flamingo lakes". It covers the full range of issues, from the lakes' origin and history, life in and around these unique water bodies, to utilization, threats and management considerations. The authors, all of whom are leading international experts, summarize research done so far, highlight new and important findings, and provide future outlooks. The book is divided into three main sections: "Genesis, physics and chemistry" tackles lake development and the astounding physico-chemistry of the lakes. "Organisms and ecology" presents information about the many lake inhabitants, their interactions and adaptations to the extreme living conditions. "Utilization, management and perspectives" addresses threats such as lake exploitation and pollution, but also considers potential uses. This book will be particularly relevant to researchers and lecturers in the field of limnology and aquatic ecology, but is also designed to attract all those interested in nature and life on our planet.